Chapter 166A.
            North Carolina Emergency Management Act.
                         Article 1.
        North Carolina Emergency Management Act of 1977.
 166A-1.  Short title.
  This Article may be cited as "North Carolina Emergency
Management Act of 1977." (1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1979, 2nd Sess.,
c. 1310, s. 2; 1995, c. 509, s. 120.)
  
 166A-2.  Purposes.
  The purposes of this Article are to set forth the
authority and responsibility of the Governor, State agencies,
and local governments in prevention of, preparation for,
response to and recovery from natural or man-made disasters or
hostile military or paramilitary action and to:
       (1)  Reduce vulnerability of people and property of this
            State to damage, injury, and loss of life and
            property;
       (2)  Prepare for prompt and efficient rescue, care and
            treatment of threatened or affected persons;
       (3)  Provide for the rapid and orderly rehabilitation of
            persons and restoration of property; and
       (4)  Provide for cooperation and coordination of
            activities relating to emergency and disaster
            mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery
            among agencies and officials of this State and with
            similar agencies and officials of other states,
            with local and federal governments, with interstate
            organizations and with other private and
            quasi-official organizations. (1959, c. 337, s. 1;
            1975, c. 734, s. 1; 1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1995, c.
            509, s. 121.)
       
 166A-3.  Limitations.
  Nothing in this Article shall be construed to:
       (1)  Interfere with dissemination of news or comment on
            public affairs; but any communications facility or
            organization, including but not limited to radio
            and television stations, wire services, and
            newspapers, may be requested to transmit or print
            public service messages furnishing information or
            instructions in connection with an emergency,
            disaster or war; or
       (2)  Limit, modify or abridge the authority of the
            Governor to proclaim martial law or exercise any
            other powers vested in him under the Constitution,
            statutes, or common law of this State independent
            of, or in conjunction with, any provisions of this
            Article. (1975, c. 734, s. 2; 1977, c. 848, s. 2;
            1995, c. 509, s. 122.)
       
 166A-4.  Definitions.
  The following definitions apply in this Article:
       (1)  Disaster. - An occurrence or imminent threat of
            widespread or severe damage, injury, or loss of
            life or property resulting from any natural or
            man-made accidental, military or paramilitary
            cause.
       (2)  Disaster Area. - The geographical area covered by a
            proclamation made by the Governor pursuant to G.S.
            166A-6(a1).
       (3)  Eligible Entity. - Any political subdivision. The
            term also includes an owner or operator of a
            private nonprofit utility that meets the
            eligibility criteria set out in this Article.
       (4)  Emergency Management. - Those measures taken by the
            populace and governments at federal, State, and
            local levels to minimize the adverse effect of any
            type disaster, which includes the never-ending
            preparedness cycle of prevention, mitigation,
            warning, movement, shelter, emergency assistance,
            and recovery.
       (5)  Emergency Management Agency. - A State or local
            governmental agency charged with coordination of
            all emergency management activities for its
            jurisdiction.
       (6)  Political Subdivision. - Counties and incorporated
            cities, towns and villages.
       (7)  Preliminary Damage Assessment. - The (initial
            estimate prepared) process used by State, local, or
            federal emergency management workers to determine
            the severity and magnitude of damage caused by a
            disaster event.
       (8)  Private Nonprofit Utilities. - A utility that would
            be eligible for federal public assistance disaster
            funds pursuant to 44 C.F.R. Part 206.
       (9)  Stafford Act. - The Robert T. Stafford Disaster
            Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Pub. L. No.
            93-288, 88 Stat. 143, codified generally at 42
            U.S.C.  5121, et seq., as amended.
       (10) State Acquisition and Relocation Fund. - State
            funding for supplemental grants to homeowners
            participating in a Hazard Mitigation Grant Program
            Acquisition and Relocation Program. These grants
            are used to acquire safe, decent, and sanitary
            housing by paying the difference between the cost
            of the home acquired under the Hazard Mitigation
            Grant Program Acquisition and Relocation Program
            and the cost of a comparable home located outside
            the 100-year floodplain. (1951, c. 1016, s. 2;
            1953, c. 1099, s. 1; 1955, c. 387, s. 1; 1975, c.
            734, ss. 4-6, 14; 1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1979, 2nd
            Sess., c. 1310, s. 2; 1995, c. 509, s. 123;
            2001-214, s. 1.)
       
 166A-5.  State emergency management.
  The State emergency management program includes all
aspects of preparations for, response to and recovery from war
or peacetime disasters.
       (1)  Governor. - The Governor shall have general
            direction and control of the State emergency
            management program and shall be responsible for
            carrying out the provisions of this Article.
            a.   The Governor is authorized and empowered:
                 1.   To make, amend or rescind the necessary
                      orders, rules and regulations within the
                      limits of the authority conferred upon
                      him herein, with due consideration of the
                      policies of the federal government.
                 2.   To delegate any authority vested in him
                      under this Article and to provide for the
                      subdelegation of any such authority.
                 3.   To cooperate and coordinate with the
                      President and the heads of the
                      departments and agencies of the federal
                      government, and with other appropriate
                      federal officers and agencies, and with
                      the officers and agencies of other states
                      and local units of government in matters
                      pertaining to the emergency management of
                      the State and nation.
                 4.   To enter into agreements with the
                      American National Red Cross, Salvation
                      Army, Mennonite Disaster Service and
                      other disaster relief organizations.
                 5.   To make, amend, or rescind mutual aid
                      agreements in accordance with G.S.
                      166A-10.
                 6.   To utilize the services, equipment,
                      supplies and facilities of existing
                      departments, offices and agencies of the
                      State and of the political subdivisions
                      thereof. The officers and personnel of
                      all such departments, offices and
                      agencies are required to cooperate with
                      and extend such services and facilities
                      to the Governor upon request. This
                      authority shall extend to a state of
                      disaster, imminent threat of disaster or
                      emergency management planning and
                      training purposes.
                 7.   To agree, when required to obtain federal
                      assistance in debris removal, that the
                      State will indemnify the federal
                      government against any claim arising from
                      the removal of the debris.
                 8.   To sell, lend, lease, give, transfer or
                      deliver materials or perform services for
                      disaster purposes on such terms and
                      conditions as may be prescribed by any
                      existing law, and to account to the State
                      Treasurer for any funds received for such
                      property.
                 9.   To use contingency and emergency funds as
                      necessary and appropriate to provide
                      relief and assistance from the effects of
                      a disaster, and to reallocate such other
                      funds as may reasonably be available
                      within the appropriations of the various
                      departments when the severity and
                      magnitude of such disaster so requires
                      and the contingency and emergency funds
                      are insufficient or inappropriate.
            b.   In the threat of or event of a disaster, or
                 when requested by the governing body of any
                 political subdivision in the State, the
                 Governor may assume operational control over
                 all or any part of the emergency management
                 functions within this State.
       (2)  Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety. - The
            Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety shall
            be responsible to the Governor for State emergency
            management activities. The Secretary shall have the
            following powers and duties as delegated by the
            Governor:
            a.   To activate the State and local plans
                 applicable to the areas in question and to
                 authorize and direct the deployment and use of
                 any personnel and forces to which the plan or
                 plans apply, and the use or distribution of
                 any supplies, equipment, materials and
                 facilities available pursuant to this Article
                 or any other provision of law.
            b.   To adopt the rules to implement this Article.
            c.   To develop a system of damage assessment
                 through which the Secretary will recommend the
                 appropriate level of disaster declaration to
                 the Governor. The system shall, at a minimum,
                 consider whether the damage involved and its
                 effects are of such a severity and magnitude
                 as to be beyond the response capabilities of
                 the local government or political subdivision.
            d.   Additional authority, duties, and
                 responsibilities as may be prescribed by the
                 Governor. The Secretary may subdelegate his
                 authority to the appropriate member of his
                 department.
       (3)  Functions of State Emergency Management. - The
            functions of the State emergency management program
            include:
            a.   Coordination of the activities of all agencies
                 for emergency management within the State,
                 including planning, organizing, staffing,
                 equipping, training, testing, and the
                 activation of emergency management programs.
            b.   Preparation and maintenance of State plans for
                 man-made or natural disasters. The State plans
                 or any parts thereof may be incorporated into
                 department regulations and into executive
                 orders of the Governor.
            b1.  Coordination with the State Health Director to
                 amend or revise the North Carolina Emergency
                 Operations Plan regarding public health
                 matters. At a minimum, the revisions to the
                 Plan shall provide for the following:
                 1.   The epidemiologic investigation of a
                      known or suspected threat caused by
                      nuclear, biological, or chemical agents.
                 2.   The examination and testing of persons
                      and animals that may have been exposed to
                      a nuclear, biological, or chemical agent.
                 3.   The procurement and allocation of
                      immunizing agents and prophylactic
                      antibiotics.
                 4.   The allocation of the National
                      Pharmaceutical Stockpile.
                 5.   The appropriate conditions for quarantine
                      and isolation in order to prevent further
                      transmission of disease.
                 6.   Immunization procedures.
                 7.   The issuance of guidelines for
                      prophylaxis and treatment of exposed and
                      affected persons.
            c.   Promulgation of standards and requirements for
                 local plans and programs, determination of
                 eligibility for State financial assistance
                 provided for in G.S. 166A-7 and provision of
                 technical assistance to local governments.
            d.   Development and presentation of training
                 programs and public information programs to
                 insure the furnishing of adequately trained
                 personnel and an informed public in time of
                 need.
            e.   Making of such studies and surveys of the
                 resources in this State as may be necessary to
                 ascertain the capabilities of the State for
                 emergency management, maintaining data on
                 these resources, and planning for the most
                 efficient use thereof.
            f.   Coordination of the use of any private
                 facilities, services, and property.
            g.   Preparation for issuance by the Governor of
                 executive orders, proclamations, and
                 regulations as necessary or appropriate.
            h.   Cooperation and maintenance of liaison with
                 the other states, federal government and any
                 public or private agency or entity in
                 achieving any purpose of this Article and in
                 implementing programs for emergency, disaster
                 or war prevention, preparation, response, and
                 recovery.
            i.   Making recommendations, as appropriate, for
                 zoning, building and other land-use controls,
                 and safety measures for securing mobile homes
                 or other nonpermanent or semipermanent works
                 designed to protect against or mitigate the
                 effects of a disaster.
            j.   Coordination of the use of existing means of
                 communications and supplementing
                 communications resources and integrating them
                 into a comprehensive State or State-federal
                 telecommunications or other communications
                 system or network. (1951, c. 1016, ss. 3, 9;
                 1953, c. 1099, s. 3; 1955, c. 387, ss. 2, 3,
                 5; 1957, c. 950, s. 5; 1975, c. 734, ss. 9,
                 10, 14, 16; 1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1979, 2nd
                 Sess., c. 1310, s. 2; 1995, c. 509, s. 124;
                 2001-214, s. 2; 2002-179, s. 12.)
            
 166A-6.  State of disaster.
  (a)The existence of a state of disaster may be proclaimed
by the Governor, or by a resolution of the General Assembly if
either of these finds that a disaster threatens or exists.
  (a1)If a state of disaster is proclaimed, the Secretary shall
provide the Governor and the General Assembly with a preliminary
damage assessment as soon as the assessment is available. Upon
receipt of the preliminary damage assessment, the Governor shall
issue a proclamation defining the area subject to the state of
disaster and proclaiming the disaster as a Type I, Type II, or
Type III disaster. In determining whether the disaster shall be
proclaimed as a Type I, Type II, or Type III disaster, the
Governor shall follow the standards set forth below.
       (1)  A Type I disaster may be declared if all of the
            following criteria are met:
            a.   A local state of emergency has been declared
                 pursuant to G.S. 166A-8, and a written copy of
                 the declaration has been forwarded to the
                 Governor;
            b.   The preliminary damage assessment meets or
                 exceeds the criteria established for the Small
                 Business Administration Disaster Loan Program
                 pursuant to 13 C.F.R. Part 123 or meets or
                 exceeds the State infrastructure criteria set
                 out in G.S. 166A-6.01(b)(2)a.; and
            c.   A major disaster declaration by the President
                 of the United States pursuant to the Stafford
                 Act has not been declared.
            A Type I disaster declaration may be made by the
            Governor prior to, and independently of, any action
            taken by the Small Business Administration, the
            Federal Emergency Management Agency, or any other
            federal agency. A Type I disaster declaration shall
            expire 30 days after its issuance unless renewed by
            the Governor or the General Assembly. Such renewals
            may be made in increments of 30 days each, not to
            exceed a total of 120 days from the date of first
            issuance. The Joint Legislative Commission on
            Governmental Operations shall be notified prior to
            the issuance of any renewal of a Type I disaster
            declaration.
       (2)  A Type II disaster may be declared if the President
            of the United States has issued a major disaster
            declaration pursuant to the Stafford Act. The
            Governor may request federal disaster assistance
            under the Stafford Act without making a Type II
            disaster declaration. A Type II disaster
            declaration shall expire six months after its
            issuance unless renewed by the Governor or the
            General Assembly. Such renewals may be made in
            increments of three months each, not to exceed a
            total of 12 months from the date of first issuance.
            The Joint Legislative Commission on Governmental
            Operations shall be notified prior to the issuance
            of any renewal of a Type II disaster declaration.
       (3)  A Type III disaster may be declared if the
            President of the United States has issued a major
            disaster declaration under the Stafford Act and:
            a.   The preliminary damage assessment indicates
                 that the extent of damage is reasonably
                 expected to meet the threshold established for
                 an increased federal share of disaster
                 assistance under applicable federal law and
                 regulations; or
            b.   The preliminary damage assessment prompts the
                 Governor to call a special session of the
                 General Assembly to establish programs to meet
                 the unmet needs of individuals or political
                 subdivisions affected by the disaster.
            A Type III disaster declaration shall expire 12
            months after its issuance unless renewed by the
            General Assembly.
  (a2)Any state of disaster declared before July 1, 2001, shall
terminate by a proclamation of the Governor or resolution of the
General Assembly. A proclamation or resolution declaring or
terminating a state of disaster shall be disseminated promptly
by means calculated to bring its contents to the attention of
the general public and, unless the circumstances attendant upon
the disaster prevent or impede, promptly filed with the
Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety, the Secretary of
State and the clerks of superior court in the area to which it
applies.
  (b) In addition to any other powers conferred upon the
Governor by law, during a state of disaster, the Governor shall
have the following powers:
       (1)  To utilize all available State resources as
            reasonably necessary to cope with an emergency,
            including the transfer and direction of personnel
            or functions of State agencies or units thereof for
            the purpose of performing or facilitating emergency
            services;
       (2)  To take such action and give such directions to
            State and local law-enforcement officers and
            agencies as may be reasonable and necessary for the
            purpose of securing compliance with the provisions
            of this Article and with the orders, rules and
            regulations made pursuant thereto;
       (3)  To take steps to assure that measures, including
            the installation of public utilities, are taken
            when necessary to qualify for temporary housing
            assistance from the federal government when that
            assistance is required to protect the public
            health, welfare, and safety;
       (4)  Subject to the provisions of the State Constitution
            to relieve any public official having
            administrative responsibilities under this Article
            of such responsibilities for willful failure to
            obey an order, rule or regulation adopted pursuant
            to this Article.
  (c) In addition, during a state of disaster, with the
concurrence of the Council of State, the Governor has the
following powers:
       (1)  To direct and compel the evacuation of all or part
            of the population from any stricken or threatened
            area within the State, to prescribe routes, modes
            of transportation, and destinations in connection
            with evacuation; and to control ingress and egress
            of a disaster area, the movement of persons within
            the area, and the occupancy of premises therein;
       (2)  To establish a system of economic controls over all
            resources, materials and services to include food,
            clothing, shelter, fuel, rents and wages, including
            the administration and enforcement of any
            rationing, price freezing or similar federal order
            or regulation;
       (3)  To regulate and control the flow of vehicular and
            pedestrian traffic, the congregation of persons in
            public places or buildings, lights and noises of
            all kinds and the maintenance, extension and
            operation of public utility and transportation
            services and facilities;
       (4)  To waive a provision of any regulation or ordinance
            of a State agency or a political subdivision which
            restricts the immediate relief of human suffering;
       (5)  Repealed by Session Laws 2001-214, s. 3, effective
            July 1, 2001.
       (6)  To perform and exercise such other functions,
            powers and duties as are necessary to promote and
            secure the safety and protection of the civilian
            population;
       (7)  To appoint or remove an executive head of any State
            agency or institution the executive head of which
            is regularly selected by a State board or
            commission.
            a.   Such an acting executive head will serve
                 during:
                 1.   The physical or mental incapacity of the
                      regular office holder, as determined by
                      the Governor after such inquiry as the
                      Governor deems appropriate;
                 2.   The continued absence of the regular
                      holder of the office; or
                 3.   A vacancy in the office pending selection
                      of a new executive head.
            b.   An acting executive head of a State agency or
                 institution appointed in accordance with this
                 subdivision may perform any act and exercise
                 any power which a regularly selected holder of
                 such office could lawfully perform and
                 exercise.
            c.   All powers granted to an acting executive head
                 of a State agency or institution under this
                 section shall expire immediately:
                 1.   Upon the termination of the incapacity as
                      determined by the Governor of the officer
                      in whose stead he acts;
                 2.   Upon the return of the officer in whose
                      stead he acts; or
                 3.   Upon the selection and qualification of a
                      person to serve for the unexpired term,
                      or the selection of an acting executive
                      head of the agency or institution by the
                      board or commission authorized to make
                      such selection, and his qualification.
       (8)  To procure, by purchase, condemnation, seizure or
            by other means to construct, lease, transport,
            store, maintain, renovate or distribute materials
            and facilities for emergency management without
            regard to the limitation of any existing law.
  (d) In preparation for a state of disaster, with the
concurrence of the Council of State, the Governor may use
contingency and emergency funds as necessary and appropriate for
National Guard training in preparation for disasters. (1951, c.
1016, s. 4; 1955, c. 387, s. 4; 1959, c. 284, s. 2; c. 337, s.
4; 1975, c. 734, ss. 11, 14; 1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1979, 2nd
Sess., c. 1310, s. 2; 1993, c. 321, s. 181(a); 1995, c. 509, s.
125; 2001-214, s. 3.)
  
 166A-6.01.  State disaster assistance funds; programs.
  (a)If a state of disaster is proclaimed, the Governor may
make State funds available for disaster assistance as authorized
by this section. Any State funds made available by the Governor
for disaster assistance may be administered through State
disaster assistance programs which may be established by the
Governor upon the proclamation of a state of disaster. It is the
intent of the General Assembly in authorizing the Governor to
make State funds available for disaster assistance and in
authorizing the Governor to establish State disaster assistance
programs to provide State assistance for recovery from those
disasters for which federal assistance under the Stafford Act is
either not available or does not adequately meet the needs of
the citizens of the State in the disaster area.
  (b) Disaster Assistance Programs - Type I Disaster. - In the
event that a Type I disaster is proclaimed, the Governor may
make State funds available for disaster assistance in the
disaster area in the form of individual assistance and public
assistance as provided in this subsection.
       (1)  Individual assistance. - State disaster assistance
            in the form of grants to individuals and families
            may be made available when damage meets or exceeds
            the criteria set out in 13 C.F.R. Part 123 for the
            Small Business Administration Disaster Loan
            Program. Individual assistance grants shall include
            benefits comparable to those provided by the
            Stafford Act and may be provided for the following:
            a.   Provision of temporary housing and rental
                 assistance.
            b.   Repair or replacement of dwellings. Grants for
                 repair or replacement of housing may include
                 amounts necessary to locate the individual or
                 family in safe, decent, and sanitary housing.
            c.   Replacement of personal property (including
                 clothing, tools, and equipment).
            d.   Repair or replacement of privately owned
                 vehicles.
            e.   Medical or dental expenses.
            f.   Funeral or burial expenses resulting from the
                 disaster.
            g.   Funding for the cost of the first year's flood
                 insurance premium to meet the requirements of
                 the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as
                 amended, 42 U.S.C.  4001, et seq.
       (2)  Public assistance. - State disaster assistance in
            the form of public assistance grants may be made
            available to eligible entities located within the
            disaster area on the following terms and
            conditions:
            a.   Eligible entities shall meet the following
                 qualifications:
                 1.   The eligible entity suffers a minimum of
                      ten thousand dollars ($10,000) in
                      uninsurable losses;
                 2.   The eligible entity suffers uninsurable
                      losses in an amount equal to or exceeding
                      one-half percent (0.5%) of the annual
                      operating budget;
                 3.   For a state of disaster proclaimed
                      pursuant to G.S. 166A-6(a) after the
                      deadline established by the Federal
                      Emergency Management Agency pursuant to
                      the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2002, P.L.
                      106-390, the eligible entity shall have a
                      hazard mitigation plan approved pursuant
                      to the Stafford Act; and
                 4.   For a state of disaster proclaimed
                      pursuant to G.S. 166A-6(a) after August
                      1, 2002, the eligible entity shall be
                      participating in the National Flood
                      Insurance Program in order to receive
                      public assistance for flooding damage.
            b.   Eligible entities shall be required to provide
                 non-State matching funds equal to twenty-five
                 percent (25%) of the eligible costs of the
                 public assistance grant.
            c.   An eligible entity that receives a public
                 assistance grant pursuant to this subsection
                 may use the grant for the following purposes
                 only:
                 1.   Debris clearance.
                 2.   Emergency protective measures.
                 3.   Roads and bridges.
                 4.   Crisis counseling.
                 5.   Assistance with public transportation
                      needs.
  (c) If a Type II disaster is proclaimed, the Governor may
make State funds available for disaster assistance in the
disaster area in the form of the following types of grants:
       (1)  State Acquisition and Relocation Funds.
       (2)  Supplemental repair and replacement housing grants
            available to the individuals or families in an
            amount necessary to locate the individual or family
            in safe, decent, and sanitary housing not to exceed
            twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) per family.
  (d) If a Type III disaster is proclaimed, the Governor may
make State funds available for disaster assistance in the
disaster area in the form of the following types of grants:
       (1)  State Acquisition and Relocation Funds.
       (2)  Supplemental repair and replacement housing grants
            available to the individuals or families in an
            amount necessary to locate the individual or family
            in safe, decent, and sanitary housing not to exceed
            twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) per family.
       (3)  Any programs authorized by the General Assembly.
            (2001-214, s. 4; 2001-487, s. 98; 2002-24, s. 1;
            2002-159, s. 57.5.)
       
 166A-6.1.  Emergency planning; charge.
  (a)Every person, firm, corporation or municipality who is
licensed to construct or who is operating a fixed nuclear
facility for the production of electricity shall pay to the
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety an annual fee of
at least thirty thousand dollars ($30,000) for each fixed
nuclear facility which is located within this State or has a
Plume Exposure Pathway Emergency Planning Zone of which any part
is located within this State. This fee is to be applied to the
costs of planning and implementing emergency response activities
as are required by the Federal Emergency Management Agency for
the operation of nuclear facilities. Said fee is to be paid no
later than July 31 of each year. This minimum fee may be
increased from time to time as the costs of such planning and
implementation increase. Such increases shall be by agreement
between the State and the licensees or operators of the fixed
nuclear facilities.
  (b) Every person, firm, corporation or municipality who is
licensed to construct or who is operating a fixed nuclear
facility for the production of electricity shall pay to the
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety, for the use of
the Division of Environmental Health of the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources, an annual fee of thirty-six
thousand dollars ($36,000) for each fixed nuclear facility that
is located within this State or that has a Plume Exposure
Pathway Emergency Planning Zone any part of which is located
within this State. This fee shall be applied only to the costs
of planning and implementing emergency response activities as
required by the Federal Emergency Management Agency for the
operation of nuclear facilities. This fee is to be paid no later
than July 31 of each year.
  (c) The fees imposed by this section do not revert at the end
of a fiscal year. The amount of fees carried forward from one
fiscal year to the next shall be taken into consideration in
determining the fee to be assessed each fixed nuclear facility
under subsection (a) in that fiscal year. (1981, c. 1128, ss. 1,
2; 1983, c. 622, ss. 1-3; 1989, c. 727, s. 219(42); 1989 (Reg.
Sess., 1990), c. 964, s. 1; 1991 (Reg. Sess., 1992), c. 1039, s.
18; 1997-443, s. 11A.123; 2000-109, s. 6; 2002-70, s. 5.)
  
 166A-7.  County and municipal emergency management.
  (a)The governing body of each county is responsible for
emergency management, as defined in G.S. 166A-4, within the
geographical limits of such county. All emergency management
efforts within the county will be coordinated by the county,
including activities of the municipalities within the county.
       (1)  The governing body of each county is hereby
            authorized to establish and maintain an emergency
            management agency for the purposes contained in
            G.S. 166A-2.
       (2)  The governing body of each county which establishes
            an emergency management agency pursuant to this
            authorization will appoint a coordinator who will
            have a direct responsibility for the organization,
            administration and operation of the county program
            and will be subject to the direction and guidance
            of such governing body.
       (3)  In the event any county fails to establish an
            emergency management agency, and the Governor, in
            his discretion, determines that a need exists for
            such an emergency management agency, then the
            Governor is hereby empowered to establish an
            emergency management agency within said county.
  (b) All incorporated municipalities are authorized to
establish and maintain emergency management agencies subject to
coordination by the county. Joint agencies composed of a county
and one or more municipalities within its borders may be formed.
  (c) Each county and incorporated municipality in this State
is authorized to make appropriations for the purposes of this
Article and to fund them by levy of property taxes pursuant to
G.S. 153A-149 and G.S. 160A-209 and by the allocation of other
revenues, whose use is not otherwise restricted by law.
  (d) In carrying out the provisions of this Article each
political subdivision is authorized:
       (1)  To appropriate and expend funds, make contracts,
            obtain and distribute equipment, materials, and
            supplies for emergency management purposes and to
            provide for the health and safety of persons and
            property, including emergency assistance,
            consistent with this Article;
       (2)  To direct and coordinate the development of
            emergency management plans and programs in
            accordance with the policies and standards set by
            the State;
       (3)  To assign and make available all available
            resources for emergency management purposes for
            service within or outside of the physical limits of
            the subdivision; and
       (4)  To delegate powers in a local state of emergency
            under G.S. 166A-8 to an appropriate official.
  (e) Each county which establishes an emergency management
agency pursuant to State standards and which meets requirements
for local plans and programs may be eligible to receive State
financial assistance. Such financial assistance for the
maintenance and operation of a county emergency management
program will not exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000) for any
fiscal year and is subject to an appropriation being made for
this purpose. Eligibility of each county will be determined
annually by the State. (1951, c. 1016, s. 6; 1953, c. 1099, s.
4; 1957, c. 950, s. 2; 1959, c. 337, s. 5; 1973, c. 620, s. 9;
1975, c. 734, ss. 12, 14, 16; 1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1979, 2nd
Sess., c. 1310, s. 2; 1995, c. 509, ss. 126, 127.)
  
 166A-8.  Local emergency authorizations.
  Procedures governing the declaration of a local state of
emergency:
       (1)  A local state of emergency may be declared for any
            disaster, as defined in G.S. 166A-4 under the
            provisions of Article 36A of G.S. Chapter 14.
       (2)  Such a declaration shall activate the local
            ordinances authorized in G.S. 14-288.12 through
            14-288.14 and any and all applicable local plans,
            mutual assistance compacts and agreements and shall
            also authorize the furnishing of assistance
            thereunder.
       (3)  The timing, publication, amendment and recision of
            local "state of emergency" declarations shall be in
            accordance with the local ordinance. (1951, c.
            1016, s. 6; 1953, c. 1099, s. 4; 1957, c. 950, s.
            2; 1959, c. 337, s. 5; 1973, c. 620, s. 9; 1975, c.
            734, ss. 12, 14, 16; 1977, c. 848, s. 2.)
       
 166A-9.  Accept services, gifts, grants and loans.
  Whenever the federal government or any agency or officer
thereof or of any person, firm or corporation shall offer to the
State, or through the State to any political subdivision
thereof, services, equipment, supplies, materials, or funds by
way of gift, grant or loan, for the purposes of emergency
management, the State acting through the Governor, or such
political subdivision, acting with the consent of the Governor
and through its governing body, may accept such offer. Upon such
acceptance the Governor of the State or governing body of such
political subdivision may authorize any officer of the State or
of the political subdivision, as the case may be, to receive
such services, equipment, supplies, materials or funds on behalf
of the State or of such political subdivision, and subject to
the terms of the offer and the rules and regulations, if any, of
the agency making the offer. (1951, c. 1016, s. 8; 1973, c. 803,
s. 45; 1975, c. 19, s. 72; c. 734, ss. 13, 14; 1977, c. 848, s.
2; 1979, 2nd Sess., c. 1310, s. 2.)
  
 166A-10.  Establishment of mutual aid agreements.
  (a)The Governor may establish mutual aid agreements with
other states and with the federal government provided that any
special agreements so negotiated are within the Governor's
authority.
  (b) The chief executive of each political subdivision, with
the concurrence of the subdivision's governing body, may develop
mutual aid agreements for reciprocal emergency management aid
and assistance. Such agreements shall be consistent with the
State emergency management program and plans.
  (c) The chief executive officer of each political
subdivision, with the concurrence of the governing body and
subject to the approval of the Governor, may enter into mutual
aid agreements with local chief executive officers in other
states for reciprocal emergency management aid and assistance.
  (d) Mutual aid agreements may include but are not limited to
the furnishing or exchange of such supplies, equipment,
facilities, personnel and services as may be needed; the
reimbursement of costs and expenses for equipment, supplies,
personnel and similar items; and on such terms and conditions as
deemed necessary. (1951, c. 1016, s. 7; 1975, c. 734, ss. 14,
16; 1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1979, 2nd Sess., c. 1310, s. 2.)
  
 166A-11.  Compensation.
  (a)Compensation for services or for the taking or use of
property shall be only to the extent that legal obligations of
individual citizens are exceeded in a particular case and then
only to the extent that the claimant has not been deemed to have
volunteered his services or property without compensation.
  (b) Compensation for property shall be only if the property
was commandeered, seized, taken, condemned, or otherwise used in
coping with a disaster and this action was ordered by the
Governor. The State shall make compensation for the property so
seized, taken or condemned on the following basis:
       (1)  In case property is taken for temporary use, the
            Governor, within 30 days of the taking, shall fix
            the amount of compensation to be paid for such
            damage or failure to return. Whenever the Governor
            shall deem it advisable for the State to take title
            to property taken under this section, he shall
            forthwith cause the owner of such property to be
            notified thereof in writing by registered mail,
            postage prepaid, or by the best means available,
            and forthwith cause to be filed a copy of said
            notice with the Secretary of State.
       (2)  If the person entitled to receive the amounts so
            determined by the Governor as just compensation is
            unwilling to accept the same as full and complete
            compensation for such property or the use thereof,
            he shall be paid seventy-five per centum (75%) of
            such amount and shall be entitled to recover from
            the State of North Carolina in an action brought in
            the superior court in the county of residence of
            claimant, or in Wake County, in the same manner as
            other condemnation claims  are brought, within
            three years after the date of the Governor's award.
            (1977, c. 848, s. 2.)
       
 166A-12.  Nondiscrimination in emergency management.
  State and local governmental bodies and other
organizations and personnel who carry out emergency management
functions under the provisions of this Article are required to
do so in an equitable and impartial manner. Such State and local
governmental bodies, organizations and personnel shall not
discriminate on the grounds of race, color, religion,
nationality, sex, age or economic status in the distribution of
supplies, the processing of applications and other relief and
assistance activities. (1975, c. 734, s. 3; 1977, c. 848, s. 2;
1979, 2nd Sess., c. 1310, s. 2; 1995, c. 509, s. 128.)
  
 166A-13.  Emergency management personnel.
  (a)No person shall be employed or associated in any
capacity in any emergency management agency established under
this Article if that person:
       (1)  Advocates or has advocated a change by force or
            violence in the constitutional form of the
            Government of the United States or in this State;
       (2)  Advocates or has advocated the overthrow of any
            government in the United States by force or
            violence;
       (3)  Has been convicted of any subversive act against
            the United States;
       (4)  Is under indictment or information charging any
            subversive act against the United States; or
       (5)  Has ever been a member of the Communist Party.
  Each person who is appointed to serve in any emergency
management agency shall, before entering upon his duties, take a
written oath before a person authorized to administer oaths in
this State, which oath shall be substantially as follows:
  "I,  _______, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will
support and defend the Constitution of the United States and the
Constitution of the State of North Carolina, against all
enemies, foreign and domestic; and that I will bear true faith
and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely,
without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I
will well and faithfully discharge the duties upon which I am
about to enter. And I do further swear (or affirm) that I do not
advocate, nor am I, nor have I ever knowingly been, a member of
any political party or organization that advocates the overthrow
of the Government of the United States or of this State by force
or violence; and that during such time as I am a member of the
State Emergency Management Agency I will not advocate nor become
a member of any political party or organization that advocates
the overthrow of the Government of the United States or of this
State by force or violence, so help me God."
  (b) No position created by or pursuant to this Article shall
be deemed an office within the meaning of Article 6, Section 9
of the Constitution of North Carolina. (1951, c. 1016, s. 10;
1975, c. 734, ss. 14, 16; 1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1979, 2nd Sess.,
c. 1310, s. 2; 1995, c. 509, s. 129.)
  
 166A-14.  Immunity and exemption.
  (a)All functions hereunder and all other activities
relating to emergency management are hereby declared to be
governmental functions. Neither the State nor any political
subdivision thereof, nor, except in cases of willful misconduct,
gross negligence or bad faith, any emergency management worker
complying with or reasonably attempting to comply with this
Article or any order, rule or regulation promulgated pursuant to
the provisions of this Article or pursuant to any ordinance
relating to any emergency management measures enacted by any
political subdivision of the State, shall be liable for the
death of or injury to persons, or for damage to property as a
result of any such activity.
  (b) The rights of any person to receive benefits to which he
would otherwise be entitled under this Article or under the
Workers' Compensation Law or under any pension law, nor the
right of any such person to receive any benefits or compensation
under any act of Congress shall not be affected by performance
of emergency management functions.
  (c) Any requirement for a license to practice any
professional, mechanical or other skill shall not apply to any
authorized emergency management worker who shall, in the course
of performing his duties as such, practice such professional,
mechanical or other skill during a state of disaster.
  (d) As used in this section, the term "emergency management
worker" shall include any full or part-time paid, volunteer or
auxiliary employee of this State or other states, territories,
possessions or the District of Columbia, of the federal
government or any neighboring country or of any political
subdivision thereof or of any agency or organization performing
emergency management services at any place in this State,
subject to the order or control of or pursuant to a request of
the State government or any political subdivision thereof. The
term "emergency management worker" under this section shall also
include a person performing emergency health care services under
G.S. 90-12.2.
  (e) Any emergency management worker, as defined in this
section, performing emergency management services at any place
in this State pursuant to agreements, compacts or arrangements
for mutual aid and assistance to which the State or a political
subdivision thereof is a party, shall possess the same powers,
duties, immunities and privileges he would ordinarily possess if
performing his duties in the State, or political subdivision
thereof in which normally employed or rendering services. (1957,
c. 950, s. 4; 1975, c. 734, s. 14; 1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1979, c.
714, s. 2; 1979, 2nd Sess., c. 1310, s. 2; 1995, c. 509, ss.
130, 131; 2002-179, s. 20(b).)
  
 166A-15.  No private liability.
  Any person, firm or corporation owning or controlling
real or personal property who, voluntarily or involuntarily,
knowingly or unknowingly, with or without compensation, grants a
license or privilege or otherwise permits or allows the
designation or use of the whole or any part or parts of such
real or personal property for the purpose of sheltering,
protecting, safeguarding or aiding in any way persons shall,
together with his successors in interest, if any, not be civilly
liable for the death of or injury to any person or the loss of
or damage to the property of any persons where such death,
injury, loss or damage resulted from, through or because of the
use of the said real or personal property for any of the above
purposes. (1957, c. 950, s. 3; 1977, c. 848, s. 2.)
  
 166A-15.1.  Civil liability of persons who willfully ignore
       a warning in a disaster.
  (a)In a disaster as defined by G.S. 166A-4, a person who
willfully ignores a warning regarding personal safety issued by
a federal, State, or local law enforcement agency, emergency
management agency, or other governmental agency responsible for
emergency management under this Article is civilly liable for
the cost of a rescue effort to any governmental agency or
nonprofit agency cooperating with a governmental agency
conducting a rescue on the endangered person's behalf if:
       (1)  The person ignores the warning, and: (i) engages in
            an activity or course of action that a reasonable
            person would not pursue, or (ii) fails to take a
            course of action that a reasonable person would
            pursue;
       (2)  As a result of ignoring the warning the person
            places himself or herself or another in danger; and
       (3)  A governmental rescue effort is undertaken on the
            endangered person's behalf. (1997-232, s. 1.)
       
 166A-16.  Severability.
  If any provision of this Article or the application
thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the
invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of
the Article which can be given effect without the invalid
provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this
Article are severable. (1977, c. 848, s. 2; 1995, c. 509, s.
132.)
  
 166A-17.  Leave options for voluntary firefighters, rescue
       squad workers, and emergency medical service personnel
       called into service.
  (a)A member of a volunteer fire department, rescue squad,
or emergency medical services agency called into service of the
State after a proclamation of a state of disaster by the
Governor or by the General Assembly, or upon the activation of
the State Emergency Response Team in response to a disaster or
emergency, shall have the right to take leave without pay from
his or her civilian employment. No member of a volunteer fire
department, rescue squad, or emergency medical services agency
shall be forced to use or exhaust his or her vacation or other
accrued leave from his or her civilian employment for a period
of active service. The choice of leave shall be solely within
the discretion of the member.
  (b) For the volunteer member to be entitled to take leave
without pay pursuant to this section, his or her services shall
be requested in writing by the Director of the Division of
Emergency Management or by the head of a local Emergency
Management Agency. The request shall be directed to the Chief of
the member's volunteer fire department, rescue squad, or
emergency medical services agency and a copy shall be provided
to the member's employer. This section shall not apply to those
members whose services have been certified by their employer to
the Director of the Division of Emergency Management, or to the
head of a local Emergency Management Agency, as essential to the
employer's own on-going emergency or disaster relief activities.
  (c) For purposes of this section, a disaster or emergency
requiring the activation of the State Emergency Response Team
means a disaster or emergency at Activation Level 2 or greater
according to the North Carolina State Emergency Operations Plan
of November 2002. Activation Level 2 requires the State
Emergency Operations Center to be fully activated with 24-hour
staffing from all State Emergency Response Team members.
  (d) The Commissioner of Labor shall enforce the provisions of
this section pursuant to Chapter 95 of the General Statutes.
(2003-103, s. 1.)
  
 166A-18.  Reserved for future codification purposes.

 166A-19.  Reserved for future codification purposes.


                           Article 2.
             Hazardous Materials Emergency Response.
 166A-20.  Title, purpose.
  (a)This Article may be cited as the "North Carolina
Hazardous Materials Emergency Response Act."
  (b) The purpose of this Article is to establish a system of
regional response to hazardous materials emergencies and
terrorist incidents in the State to protect the health and
safety of its citizens. (1993 (Reg. Sess., 1994), c. 769, s.
22.4(b); 2002-179, s. 21(a).)
  

 166A-21.  Definitions.
  As used in this Article:
       (1)  "Hazardous materials emergency response team" or
            "hazmat team" means an organized group of persons
            specially trained and equipped to respond to and
            control actual or potential leaks or spills of
            hazardous materials.
       (2)  "Hazardous material" means any material defined as
            a hazardous substance under 29 Code of Federal
            Regulations  1910.120(a)(3).
       (3)  "Hazardous materials incident" or "hazardous
            materials emergency" means an uncontrolled release
            or threatened release of a hazardous substance
            requiring outside assistance by a local fire
            department or hazmat team to contain and control.
       (4)  "Regional response team" means a hazmat team under
            contract with the State to provide response to
            hazardous materials emergencies occurring outside
            the hazmat team's local jurisdiction at the
            direction of the Department of Crime Control and
            Public Safety, Division of Emergency Management.
       (5)  "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Department
            of Crime Control and Public Safety.
       (6)  "Technician-level entry capability" means the
            capacity of a hazmat team, in terms of training and
            equipment as specified in 29 Code of Federal
            Regulations  1910.120, to respond to a hazardous
            materials incident requiring affirmative measures,
            such as patching, plugging, or other action
            necessary to stop and contain the release of a
            hazardous substance at its source.
       (7)  "Terrorist incident" means activities that occur
            within the territorial jurisdiction of the United
            States, involve acts dangerous to human life that
            are a violation of the criminal laws of the United
            States or of any state, and are intended to do one
            of the following:
            a.   Intimidate or coerce a civilian population.
            b.   Influence the policy of a government by
                 intimidation or coercion.
            c.   Affect the conduct of a government by mass
                 destruction, assassination, or kidnapping.
                 (1993 (Reg. Sess., 1994), c. 769, s. 22.4(b);
                 1997-456, s. 27; 2002-179, s. 21(b).)
            
 166A-22.  Hazardous materials emergency response program.
  (a)The Secretary shall adopt rules establishing a
regional response program for hazardous materials emergencies
and terrorist incidents, to be administered by the Division of
Emergency Management. To the extent possible, the regional
response program shall be coordinated with other emergency
planning activities of the State. The regional response program
shall include at least six hazmat teams located strategically
across the State that are available to provide regional response
to hazardous materials or terrorist incidents requiring
technician-level entry capability and 24-hour dispatch and
communications capability at the Division of Emergency
Management Operations Center. The rules for the program shall
include:
       (1)  Standards, including training, equipment, and
            personnel standards required to operate a regional
            response team with technician-level entry
            capability.
       (2)  Guidelines for the dispatch of a regional response
            team to a hazardous materials or terrorist
            incident.
       (3)  Guidelines for the on-site operations of a regional
            response team.
       (4)  Standards for administration of a regional response
            team, including procedures for reimbursement of
            response costs.
       (5)  Refresher and specialist training for members of
            regional response teams.
       (6)  Procedures for recovering the costs of a response
            to a hazardous materials or terrorist incident from
            persons determined to be responsible for the
            emergency.
       (7)  Procedures for bidding and contracting for the
            provision of a hazmat team for the regional
            response program.
       (8)  Criteria for evaluating bids for the provision of a
            hazmat team for regional response.
       (9)  Delineation of the roles of the regional response
            team, local fire department and local public safety
            personnel, the Division of Emergency Management's
            area coordinator, and other State agency personnel
            responding to the scene of a hazardous materials or
            terrorist incident.
  (b) In developing the program and adopting rules, the
Secretary shall consult with the Regional Response Team Advisory
Committee established pursuant to G.S. 166A-24. (1993 (Reg.
Sess., 1994), c. 769, s. 22.4(b); 2002-179, s. 21(c).)
  
 166A-23.  Contracts; equipment loans.
  (a)The Secretary may contract with any unit or units of
local government for the provision of a regional response team
to implement the regional response program. Contracts are to be
let consistent with the bidding and contract standards and
procedures adopted pursuant to G.S. 166A-22(a)(7) and (8). In
entering into contracts with units of local government, the
Secretary may agree to provide:
       (1)  A loan of equipment, including a hazmat vehicle,
            necessary for the provision technician-level entry
            capability;
       (2)  Reimbursement of personnel costs when a regional
            response team is authorized by the Department to
            respond to a hazmat or terrorist incident,
            including the cost of call-back personnel;
       (3)  Reimbursement for use of equipment and vehicles
            owned by the regional response team;
       (4)  Replacement of disposable materials and damaged
            equipment;
       (5)  Costs of medical surveillance for members of the
            regional response team, including baseline,
            maintenance, and exit physicals;
       (6)  Training expenses; and
       (7)  Other provisions agreed to by the Secretary and the
            regional response team.
  (b) The Secretary shall not agree to provide reimbursement
for:
       (1)  Costs of clean-up activities, after a spill or leak
            has been contained;
       (2)  Local response not requiring technician-level entry
            capability; or
       (3)  Standby time.
  (c) Any contract entered into between the Secretary and a
unit of local government for the provision of a regional
response team shall specify that the members of the regional
response team, when performing their duties under the contract,
shall not be employees of the State and shall not be entitled to
benefits under the Teachers' and State Employees' Retirement
System or for the payment by the State of federal social
security, employment insurance, or workers' compensation.
  (d) Regional response teams that have the use of a State
hazmat vehicle may use the vehicle for local purposes. Where a
State vehicle is used for purposes other than authorized
regional response to a hazardous materials or terrorist
incident, the regional response team shall be liable for repairs
or replacements directly attributable to the nonauthorized
response. (1993 (Reg. Sess., 1994), c. 769, s. 22.4(b);
2002-179, s. 21(d).)
  
 166A-24.  Immunity of Regional Response Team Personnel.
  Members of a regional response team shall be protected
from liability under the provisions of G.S. 166A-14(a) while
responding to a hazardous materials or terrorist incident
pursuant to authorization from the Division of Emergency
Management. (1993 (Reg. Sess., 1994), c. 769, s. 22.4(b);
2002-179, s. 21(e).)
  
 166A-25.  Right of entry.
  A regional response team, when authorized to respond to a
release or threatened release of hazardous materials or when
authorized to respond to a terrorist or threatened or imminent
terrorist incident, may enter onto any private or public
property on which the release or terrorist incident has occurred
or on which there is an imminent threat of such release or
terrorist incident. A regional response team may also enter,
under such circumstances, any adjacent or surrounding property
in order to respond to the release or threatened release of
hazardous material or to monitor, control, and contain the
release or perform any other action in mitigation of a hazardous
materials or terrorist incident. (1993 (Reg. Sess., 1994), c.
769, s. 22.4(b); 2002-179, s. 21(f).)
  
 166A-26.  Regional Response Team Advisory Committee.
  (a)The Regional Response Team Advisory Committee is
created. The Secretary shall appoint the members of the
Committee and shall designate the chair. In making appointments,
the Secretary shall take into consideration the expertise of the
appointees in the management of hazardous materials emergencies.
The Secretary shall appoint one representative from:
       (1)  The Division of Emergency Management;
       (2)  The North Carolina Highway Patrol;
       (3)  The State Fire and Rescue Commission of the
            Department of Insurance;
       (4)  The Department of Environment and Natural
            Resources;
       (5)  The Department of Transportation;
       (6)  The Department of Agriculture and Consumer
            Services;
       (7)  The Chemical Industry Council of North Carolina;
       (8)  The N.C. Association of Hazardous Materials
            Responders;
       (9)  Each regional response team;
       (10) The State Bureau of Investigation.
  In addition to the persons listed above, the Secretary shall
appoint to the Advisory Committee three persons designated
jointly by the North Carolina Fire Chiefs Association and the
North Carolina State Firemen's Association.
  (b) The Advisory Committee shall meet on the call of the
chair, or at the request of the Secretary; provided that the
Committee shall meet no less than once every three months. The
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety shall provide
space for the Advisory Committee to meet. The Department also
shall provide the Advisory Committee with necessary support
staff and supplies to enable the Committee to carry out its
duties in an effective manner.
  (c) Members of the Advisory Committee shall serve without
pay, but shall receive travel allowance, lodging, subsistence,
and per diem as provided by G.S. 138-5.
  (d) The Regional Response Team Advisory Committee shall
advise the Secretary on the establishment of the program for
regional response to hazardous materials emergencies in the
State. The Committee shall also evaluate and advise the
Secretary of the need for additional regional response teams to
serve the State. (1993 (Reg. Sess., 1994), c. 769, s. 22.4(b);
1997-261, s. 108; 1997-443, s. 11A.123; 2002-179, s. 21(g).)
  
 166A-27.  Action for the recovery of costs of hazardous
       materials emergency response.
  A person who causes the release of a hazardous material
requiring the activation of a regional response team shall be
liable for all reasonable costs incurred by the regional
response team in responding to and mitigating the incident. The
Secretary shall invoice the person liable for the hazardous
materials release, and, in the event of nonpayment, may
institute an action to recover those costs in the superior court
of the county in which the release occurred. (1993 (Reg. Sess.,
1994), c. 769, s. 22.4(b).)
  
 166A-28.  Hazardous Materials Emergency Response Fund.
  There is established in the Department of Crime Control
and Public Safety a fund for those monies collected pursuant to
G.S. 166A-27. The Fund is also authorized to accept any gift,
grant, or donation of money or property to facilitate the
establishment and operation of the regional response system.
(1993 (Reg. Sess., 1994), c. 769, s. 22.4(b).)
  
 166A-29.  Reserved for future codification purposes.


                           Article 3.
              Disaster Service Volunteer Leave Act.
 166A-30.  Short title.
  This act may be cited as the Disaster Service Volunteer
Leave Act. (1993, c. 13, s. 1.)
  

 166A-31.  Definitions.
  As used in this Article:
  (1) "Certified disaster service volunteer" means a person who
has completed the necessary training for and been certified as a
disaster service specialist by the American National Red Cross.
  (2) "Disaster" means a disaster designated at Level III or
higher in the American National Red Cross Regulations and
Procedures.
  (3) "State agency" means and includes all departments,
institutions, commissions, committees, boards, divisions,
bureaus, officers, and officials of the State, including those
within the legislative and judicial branches of State
government. (1993, c. 13, s. 1.)
  
 166A-32.  Disaster service volunteer leave.
  An employee of a State agency who is a disaster service
volunteer of the American Red Cross may be granted leave from
his work with pay for a time not to exceed 15 work days in any
12-month period to participate in specialized disaster relief
services for the American Red Cross. To be granted leave, the
request for the services of that employee must come from the
American Red Cross. The decision to grant the employee leave
rests in the sole discretion of the employing State agency based
on the work needs of that agency. Employees granted leave
pursuant to this Article shall not lose seniority, pay, vacation
time, sick time, or earned overtime accumulation. The State
agency shall compensate an employee granted leave under this
Article at the regular rate of pay for those regular work hours
during which the employee is absent from his work. Leave under
this Article shall be granted only for services related to a
disaster occurring within the United States.
  The State of North Carolina shall not be liable for workers
compensation claims arising from accident or injury while the
State employee is on assignment as a disaster service volunteer
for the American Red Cross. Duties performed while on disaster
leave shall not be considered to be a work assignment by a state
agency. The employee is granted leave based on the need for the
employee's area of expertise. Job functions although similar or
related are performed on behalf of and for the benefit of the
American Red Cross. (1993, c. 13, s. 1; 2001-508, s. 6.)
  
 166A-33 through 166A-39.  Reserved for future codification
       purposes.


                           Article 4.
            Emergency Management Assistance Compact.
 166A-40.  Title of Article; entering into Compact.
  (a)This Article may be cited as the Emergency Management
Assistance Compact.
  (b) The Emergency Management Assistance Compact, hereinafter
"Compact", is hereby enacted into law and entered into by this
State with all other states legally joining therein, in the form
substantially as set forth in this Article. This Compact is made
and entered into by and between the party states which enact
this Compact. For the purposes of this Article, the term
"states" means the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto
Rico, the District of Columbia, and all United States
territorial possessions and the term "party states" means the
participating member states which enact and enter into this
Compact. (1997-152, s. 1.)
  

 166A-41.  Purposes and authorities.
  (a)The purpose of this Compact is to provide for mutual
assistance between the party states in managing any emergency or
disaster that is duly declared by the governor of the affected
state or states, whether arising from natural disaster,
technological hazard, man-made disaster, civil emergency aspects
of resources shortages, community disorders, insurgency, or
enemy attack.
  (b) This Compact shall also provide for mutual cooperation in
emergency-related exercises, testing, or other training
activities using equipment and personnel simulating performance
of any aspect of the giving and receiving of aid by party states
or subdivisions of party states during emergencies, such actions
occurring outside actual declared emergency periods. Mutual
assistance in this Compact may include the use of the states'
national guard forces, either in accordance with the National
Guard Mutual Assistance Compact or by mutual agreement between
states. (1997-152, s. 1.)
  
 166A-42.  General implementation.
  (a)Each party state recognizes that many emergencies
transcend political jurisdictional boundaries and that
intergovernmental coordination is essential in managing these
and other emergencies under this Compact. Each party state
further recognizes that there will be emergencies that require
immediate access and present procedures to apply outside
resources to respond to emergencies effectively and promptly.
This is because few, if any, individual states have all the
resources that they may need in all types of emergencies or the
capability of delivering resources to areas where emergencies
exist.
  (b) The prompt, full, and effective utilization of resources
of the participating states, including any resources on hand or
available from the federal government or any other source, that
are essential to the safety, care, and welfare of the people in
the event of any emergency or disaster declared by a party
state, shall be the underlying principle on which all articles
of this Compact shall be understood.
  (c) On behalf of the governor of each party state, the
legally designated state official who is assigned responsibility
for emergency management shall be responsible for formulation of
the appropriate interstate mutual aid plans and procedures
necessary to implement this Compact. (1997-152, s. 1.)
  
 166A-43.  Party state responsibilities.
  (a)It shall be the responsibility of each party state to
formulate procedural plans and programs for interstate
cooperation in the performance of the responsibilities listed in
this Article. In formulating the plans, and in carrying them
out, the party states, insofar as practicable, shall:
       (1)  Review individual state hazards analyses and, to
            the extent reasonably possible, determine all those
            potential emergencies the party state might jointly
            suffer, whether due to natural disaster,
            technological hazard, man-made disaster, emergency
            aspects of resource shortages, civil disorders,
            insurgency, or enemy attack.
       (2)  Review the party states' individual emergency plans
            and develop a plan that will determine the
            mechanism for the interstate management and
            provision of assistance concerning any potential
            emergency.
       (3)  Develop interstate procedures to fill any
            identified gaps and to resolve any identified
            inconsistencies or overlaps in existing or
            developed plans.
       (4)  Assist in warning communities adjacent to or
            crossing the state boundaries.
       (5)  Protect and assure uninterrupted delivery of
            services, medicines, water, food, energy and fuel,
            search and rescue, and critical lifeline equipment
            services, and resources, both human and material.
       (6)  Inventory and set procedures for the interstate
            loan and delivery of human and material resources,
            together with procedures for reimbursement or
            forgiveness.
       (7)  Provide, to the extent authorized by law, for
            temporary suspension of any statutes or ordinances
            that restrict the implementation of the above
            responsibilities.
  (b) The authorized representative of a party state may
request assistance of another party state by contacting the
authorized representative of that state. The provisions of this
Compact shall only apply to requests for assistance made by and
to authorized representatives. Requests may be verbal or in
writing. If verbal, the request shall be confirmed in writing
within 30 days of the verbal request. Requests shall provide the
following information:
       (1)  A description of the emergency service function for
            which assistance is needed, including fire
            services, law enforcement, emergency medical,
            transportation, communications, public works and
            engineering, building inspection, planning and
            information assistance, mass care, resource
            support, health and medical services, and search
            and rescue.
       (2)  The amount and type of personnel, equipment,
            materials and supplies needed, and a reasonable
            estimate of the length of time they will be needed.
       (3)  The specific place and time for staging of the
            assisting party's response and a point of contact
            at that location.
  (c) There shall be frequent consultation between state
officials who have assigned emergency management
responsibilities and other appropriate representatives of the
party states with affected jurisdictions and the federal
government, with free exchange of information, plans, and
resource records relating to emergency capabilities. (1997-152,
s. 1.)
  
 166A-44.  Limitations.
  (a)Any party state requested to render mutual aid or
conduct exercises and training for mutual aid shall take such
action as is necessary to provide and make available the
resources covered by this Compact in accordance with the terms
hereof; provided that the state rendering aid may withhold
resources to the extent necessary to provide reasonable
protection for such state.
  (b) Each party state shall afford to the emergency forces of
any party state while operating within its state limits under
the terms and conditions of this Compact, the same powers
(except that of arrest unless specifically authorized by the
receiving state), duties, rights, and privileges as are afforded
forces of the state in which they are performing emergency
services. Emergency forces will continue under the command and
control of their regular leaders, but the organizational units
will come under the operational control of the emergency
services authorities of the state receiving assistance. These
conditions may be activated, as needed, only subsequent to a
declaration of a state of emergency or disaster by the governor
of the party state that is to receive assistance or commencement
of exercises or training for mutual aid and shall continue so
long as the exercises or training for mutual aid are in
progress, the state of emergency or disaster remains in effect,
or loaned resources remain in the receiving state or states,
whichever is longer. (1997-152, s. 1.)
  
 166A-45.  Licenses and permits.
  Whenever any person holds a license, certificate, or
other permit issued by any party state evidencing the meeting of
qualifications for professional, mechanical, or other skills,
and when assistance is requested by the receiving party state,
the person shall be deemed licensed, certified, or permitted by
the state requesting assistance to render aid involving skill to
meet a declared emergency or disaster, subject to any
limitations and conditions the governor of the requesting state
may prescribe by executive order or otherwise. (1997-152, s. 1.)
  
 166A-46.  Liability.
  Officers or employees of a party state rendering aid in
another state pursuant to this Compact shall be considered
agents of the requesting state for tort liability and immunity
purposes; and no party state or its officers or employees
rendering aid in another state pursuant to this Compact shall be
liable for any act or omission occuring as a result of a good
faith attempt to render aid or as a result of the use of any
equipment or supplies used in connection with an attempt to
render aid. For the purposes of this Article, "good faith" does
not include willful misconduct, gross negligence, or
recklessness. (1997-152, s. 1.)
  
 166A-47.  Supplementary agreements.
  Inasmuch as it is probable that the pattern and detail of
the machinery for mutual aid among two or more states may differ
from that among the states that are party hereto, this
instrument contains elements of a broad base common to all
states, and nothing herein contained shall preclude any state
from entering into supplementary agreements with another state
or affect any other agreements already in force between states.
Supplementary agreements may comprehend, but shall not be
limited to, provisions for evacuation and reception of injured
and other persons and the exchange of medical, fire, police,
public utility, reconnaissance, welfare, transportation and
communications personnel, and equipment and supplies. (1997-152,
s. 1.)
  
 166A-48.  Compensation.
  Each party state shall provide for the payment of
compensation and death benefits to injured members of the
emergency forces of that state and representatives of deceased
members of the forces in case the members sustain injuries or
are killed while rendering aid pursuant to this Compact, in the
same manner and on the same terms as if the injury or death were
sustained within their own state. (1997-152, s. 1.)
  
 166A-49.  Reimbursement.
  Any party state rendering aid in another state pursuant
to this Compact shall be reimbursed by the party state receiving
the aid for any loss or damage to or expense incurred in the
operation of any equipment and the provision of any service in
answering a request for aid and for the costs incurred in
connection with the requests; provided, that any aiding party
state may assume in whole or in part the loss, damage, expense,
or other cost, or may loan the equipment or donate the services
to the receiving party state without charge or cost; and
provided further, that any two or more party states may enter
into supplementary agreements establishing a different
allocation of costs among those states. (1997-152, s. 1.)
  
 166A-50.  Evacuation.
  Plans for the orderly evacuation and interstate reception
of portions of the civilian population as the result of any
emergency or disaster of sufficient proportions to so warrant
shall be worked out and maintained between the party states and
the emergency management or services directors of the various
jurisdictions where any type of incident requiring evacuations
might occur. Plans shall be put into effect by request of the
state from which evacuees come and shall include the manner of
transporting the evacuees, the number of evacuees to be received
in different areas, the manner in which food, clothing, housing,
and medical care will be provided, the registration of the
evacuees, the providing of facilities for the notification of
relatives or friends, and the forwarding of the evacuees to
other areas or the bringing in of additional materials,
supplies, and all other relevant factors. The plans shall
provide that the party state receiving evacuees and the party
state from which the evacuees come shall mutually agree as to
reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses incurred in receiving
and caring for evacuees, for expenditures for transportation,
food, clothing, medicines and medical care, and like items. The
expenditures shall be reimbursed as agreed by the party state
from which the evacuees come and that party state shall assume
the responsibility for the ultimate support of repatriation of
the evacuees. (1997-152, s. 1.)
  
 166A-51.  Effective date.
  (a)This Compact shall become operative immediately upon
its enactment into law by any two states; thereafter, this
Compact shall become effective as to any other state upon its
enactment by the state.
  (b) Any party state may withdraw from this Compact by
enacting a statute repealing the same, but no withdrawal shall
take effect until 30 days after the governor of the withdrawing
state has given notice in writing of the withdrawal to the
governors of all other party states. The action shall not
relieve the withdrawing state from obligations assumed hereunder
prior to the effective date of withdrawal.
  (c) Duly authenticated copies of this Compact and of any
supplementary agreements as may be entered into shall, at the
time of their approval, be deposited with each of the party
states and with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and
other appropriate agencies of the federal government. (1997-152,
s. 1.)
  
 166A-52.  Validity.
  If any provision of this Compact is declared
unconstitutional, or the applicability thereof to any person or
circumstances is held invalid, the constitutionality of the
remainder of this act and the applicability thereof to other
persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby.
(1997-152, s. 1.)
  
 166A-53.  Additional provisions.
  Nothing in this Compact shall authorize or permit the use
of military force by the national guard of a state at any place
outside that state in any emergency for which the President is
authorized by law to call into federal service the militia, or
for any purpose for which the use of the Army or the Air Force
would in the absence of express statutory authorization be
prohibited under section 1385 of Title 18, United States Code.
(1997-152, s. 1.)