Charles Babbage --
"Father of Computing"

  • Logical structure of the modern computer
  • Practically addicted to mathematics and believed virtually anything could be quantified
  • Made detailed plans for "Calculating Engines" in 1800's -- full functioning engine never built
 
"As We May Think"
  • Article in The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945
  • Authored by Vannevar Bush, electrical engineer at MIT and U.S. advisor during World War II
  • Introduced concept of a "memex," a device that would allow a user to connect different pieces of associated information
 
ENIAC
  • Built in 1946 at The University of Pennsylvania
  • First large-scale electronic computer
  • Had 17,468 electronic vacuum tubes
  • 5,000 additions per second -- today's microprocessor can do 100 million additions per second
 
The Cold War and computing
  • 1958 -- Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) created under the auspices of the Department of Defense
  • ARPA would become the home of ARPAnet -- a network of computers funded by the military and designed to allow communication in the event of a nuclear attack
 
Ted Nelson
  • 1965 -- Introduces the principle of hypertext, associating information through "links" into a coherent organization
  • Xanadu -- Nelson's vision of a global hypertext publishing system, has been in development for nearly 40 years
 
Transmission research
  • 1967 -- Plan for packet switching presented at technology conference
    • research by MIT (1961-1967), Rand Corporation (1962-1965) and great Britain's NPL (1964-1967) had proceeded in parallel without any of the researchers knowing about the other groups' work
 
ARPAnet established
  • 1969 -- First four nodes, or points of access, to the forerunner of the Internet are established (UCLA, Cal-Berkley, Stanford, Utah)
 

Vinton G. Cerf --
"Father of the Internet"

  • Involved in installation of APRAnet in 1969 while a grad student at UCLA
  • Helped develop TCP/IP protocol in 1970s
 
Doug Engelbart
  • Stanford node of original ARPAnet
    • 1968 -- Debut of NLS computer system which included forerunners of mouse, hypermedia, and on-screen video teleconferencing
    • Also credited with developing word processing and screen windows
 
The minicomputer
  • 1975 -- Release of Altair 8800
    • Yours for the low price of $397
    • Users had to not only assemble the Altair themselves, but write software for it also
 
Along comes Microsoft
  • 1975 -- Two young software developers -- Bill Gates and Paul Allen write and market a software program for the Altair
    • Their version of the BASIC language program for the Altair was a success, and Microsoft Corporation was born
 
Birth of the Apple
  • 1977 -- Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak launch the Apple II, which featured built-in programming, color graphics, and increased memory capacity compared to the Altair
  • The Apple II was an almost immediate success, and is credited with being a ground-breaking model for home computers
 
Home computing
  • 1981 -- IBM launched a personal computer model featuring microprocessor chips from Intel, and MS-DOS operating system from Microsoft
  • 1984 -- Apple introduces the Macintosh during the third quarter of the Super Bowl, with a 60-second commercial
 
Work on the backbone
  • 1986 -- NSFnet created with 56kbps backbone
  • 1989 -- NSFnet backbone upgraded to T1 (1.544Mbps) -- Internet hosts exceeded 100,000
  • 1992 -- NSFnet backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736 Mbps) -- 1,000,000 Internet hosts
  • 1993 -- 2,000,000 Internet hosts
 
Tim Berners-Lee
  • 1989 -- Founds the World Wide Web initiative for his own use as a researcher at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
  • 1991 -- Specified the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
  • Also developed URLs (uniform resource locators) and HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol)
 
Birth of the browser
  • 1993 -- Marc Andreessen, an undergraduate student at the University of Illinois, helped create the path-breaking browser Mosaic
    • Mosaic the first browser with a Graphical User Interface (GUI)
  • 1994 -- Andreessen co-founded Netscape Communications Corporation
 
Going Commercial
  • 1993 -- Plans drafted to replace government-funded backbone with numerous commercial backbones
    • Individuals would access Internet through Internet Service Providers (ISPs) connected to backbone
    • 1995 -- NSFnet backbone decommissioned
 
The Internet goes mainstream
  • January 14, 1994 -- Al Gore became the first U.S. Vice President to hold a live interactive news conference on an international computer network
  • 1994 -- More .com sites than .edu sites
 
Net becomes big business
 

1998 -- America Online CEO Steve Case agreed to buy Netscape, creating a more formidable rival to Microsoft

1999 -- Amazon.com CEO Jeff Bezos named Time magazine's person of the year

1999 -- Amazon.com lost an estimated $350 million

 
Client-Server Structure
 
 
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Key tech terms
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) -- Basic communication language of the Internet
    • Metaphor = moving to a new house
    • TCP = putting data into boxes (packets)
    • IP = final address where packets are going
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) -- Computer language that allows for transfer of files on the subsection of the Internet known as the World Wide Web
  • World Wide Web (WWW) -- All the resources and the users on the Internet that use HTTP
  • HyperText markup Language (HTML) -- Set of symbols or codes inserted into a file intended for display on a WWW browser
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) -- An application used by web developers to upload their finished pages to the server -- Also commonly used to download software
 
Anatomy of a URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
  • Example -- http://www.elon.edu/hmakemson/jcm387/schedule.html
    • Protocol -- http://
    • Host name -- www.elon.edu
    • Directory path -- hmakemson
    • Directory path -- jcm387
    • File name -- schedule.html
 
Relationship between URL and IP address
  • www.elon.edu -- is actually a "handle" for the IP address -- 152.33.2.120
  • Domain Name Servers map the URL (the way we remember web sites) to the IP address (the way computers recognize the web site location)
 
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